The historical course of the river
Humans exploited the waters of the river already from the new stone age (6700 - 3300 BC), which is characterized by the productive activity (cultivation) and the permanent installation. The most important settlements (magoules) are developing near Penios river and its tributaries. The excavational research in various places has given important samples of new stone’s culture.
Some of these settlements continued their existence during bronze age (3300 - 1100 BC) and changed during the historical years in powerful, fortified cities which will play important role in the historical events of the region.
One of these cities was also Larissa which from the antiquity was built next to Penios river that constituted for a lot of years the most graphic part, and symbol of Larissa. The stone bridge with its nine arches, that allowed the transferences of its residents from the one shore to the other and the natural groves in its shores, were assembling the citizens of Larissa at the feasts and at the walks and were offering to them coolness during spring and summertime. The river boats that was floating in its waters, the water carriers that was carrying water in the city, the rich vegetation, but also the frequent floods of the river are composing pictures from a distant past.
Because of its frequent floods, that were causing damages, to the adjacent neighbourhoods, but also victims, the decade of 30’ was manufactured the new watercourse that led the water outside of the city of Larissa. In the decade of 50’, after requirement of the residents, was restored a part of the water in the old watercourse. Nowadays are functioning both of the two watercourses. Their separation is taking place a while after the Aqueduct, while it exists a regulator, a dam as the residents called it, that determine the quantity of the water that is channelled in the two watercourses.
Penios determined also the economic life of the city. Near its shores were organised the professional neighbourhoods of Larissa. In Tampakika the tanneries were processing skins, in Milia were functioning the traditional watermills, in Salia was becoming the transport and the trade of timber and in Pera Mahalas, in the left shore of Penios, the water was helping in the elaboration of the wool and in the growth of the textile. But also the commercial activity of city, the big trade of animals and trade festivals, were becoming near the river.
Nowadays, the river continues to constitute an inseparable piece of the city. With the reformation of its watercourse was created a green place of amusement, that constitutes a spot of social and cultural action.